Early botany[ edit ] An engraving of the cells of corkfrom Robert Hooke 's MicrographiaBotany originated as herbalismthe study and use of plants for their medicinal properties. Examples of early botanical works have been found in ancient texts from India dating back to before BC,   in archaic Avestan writings, and in works from China before it was unified in BC. De Materia Medica was widely read for more than 1, years. These gardens continued the practical value of earlier "physic gardens", often associated with monasteries, in which plants were cultivated for medical use.
Fairy rings got their name in the olden days in Europe, when people came upon these rings of mushrooms in clearings and meadows in the woods. Obviously there must have been some fairies or wood nymphs doing their magical dances during the night in and out of these fairy rings.
Now before you make any value judgments about the fairies in the ring in this picture, let me tell you Botany fungi the people I forced to do this. Both are former undergraduate students in my Mycology class the last time I taught it at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in Fall as a temporary substitute-- it was the seventh time I had taught Mycology in the Botany Department there.
I am now happy to count them both among my most important mycological colleagues. Anyway back to the fairy rings-- how and why does a fairy ring form?
Think for a minute about the way a fungus grows on a piece of bread on your countertop-- the colony is very circular, with the fungus spreading out in two dimensions on the top of the bread. Grassy lawns are a fairly homogenous substrate and the mushrooms often grow in rings.
The colony of the Chlorophyllum must have been inoculated in the center several years before.
Usually the center of such colonies dies and the only living part is around the outside edge, where the fruiting bodies can form.
It's a little more complicated for a fungus in the woods. The substrate is not so homogenous.
You can see Calvatia gigantea forming fairy rings in the deep woods as the August Fungus of the Month. This month's fungus is very abundant and is among the most common causes of poisoning in North America, especially in the South, Pacific Northwest and California.
Apparently it has a worldwide pantropical distribution. I often think of this as a southern fungus, but with the hot and wet weather here in the upper midwest, we found this mushroom in La Crosse recently- last year we even had our own local poisoning.
But why should this fungus cause more problems than any other? Chlorophyllum molybdites closely resembles two edible Lepiota species. In the picture, the poisonous Chlorophyllum molybdites is on the left and the delicious edible mushroom Lepiota rhacodes is on the right.
Several other edible Lepiota species can also be confused with Chlorophyllum molybdites, including the parasol mushroom Lepiota procera, and also Lepiota americana.
In case you're looking for these in a field guide, some authors include these species in the genus Macrolepiota. The major difference between Chlorophyllum and Lepiota is that Chlorophyllum develops green tinted spores and a green spore print.
However, often the spores take a while to mature and may even appear to be white as in Lepiota! Symptoms of Chlorophyllum molybdites poisoning are mostly gastrointestinal in nature.
According to Dennis Benjamin Mushrooms: Freeman and Company, pp. Symptoms persist for up to six hours, and even longer in a few patients.Departments of Botany used to handle fungi - their taxonomy in particular.
The Agricultural Universities have their own "Departments of Plant Pathology' where diseases caused by fungi (and viruses etc) are studied (insect diseases are with the Entomologists).
Antique Mushrooms printBotany lithograph in color years old heartoftexashop.com heartoftexashop.com Mushroom printx9 ins or16x23 cm. Well, and as you probably suspect, it’s not direct activity of the fungi that generates the oxygen, but the effect that these mycological miracle workers had on photosynthetic plants during the planet’s geological past, via their role as partners in that ancient plant-fungus mutualism known as.
Visit his Botany Instructional Technology web page at heartoftexashop.com You'll be very impressed.
Please read some of the or so webpages made by my students in Organismal Biology, a class I have now taught three times. Visit his Botany Instructional Technology web page at heartoftexashop.com You'll be very impressed. Please read some of the or so webpages made by my students in Organismal Biology, a class I have now taught three times.
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